What is coefficient of performance of heat pump?

We always talk about how a heater pump water heater is more efficient than any traditional water heater. But how to measure efficiency of water heaters? This is done by calculating the coefficient of performance of heat pump.

So, what is COP of a heat pump, and how is it calculated? In this blog, we will discuss these topics.

What is COP of Heat Pump?

Coefficient of heat pump is a metric to determine the efficiency of a heat pump water heater.

COP of Heat Pump is the ratio of the heating capacity of the heat pump to the rated power of the heat pump system. A COP does not have any unit as both the heating capacity and the rated power are in the same unit.

So, how to interpret the COP Value? The greater the COP of heat pump system, the better is the efficiency of the heat pump system.

What is a good Coefficient of Performance for a heat pump?

If your heat pump water heater COP value is >3.5, it means that your heat pump system is energy saving, and it will save you bucks on your monthly electricity bill.

How to calculate COP of heat pump?

There is a simple formula to calculate heat pump COP, under standard working conditions.

Say, your heat pump water heater’s capacity is QH. And the rated power is Win. So, the COP of heat pump formula is:

K= QH ​/Win


K = Coefficient of performance

QH = Heating capacity of heat pump

Win = Rated power

Simply, a COP of heat pump formula is:

COP = Output/Input

Factors affecting COP of Heat Pump

1. External Environment:

The climate plays a very big role, as a heat pump system absorbs heat from the surrounding to produce hot water. This is how a heat pump works. If the temperature of the external environment decreases, the COP decreases. Which means more electricity will be consumed to heat the water.

Another external factor that can affect the COP of a Heat Pump System is the humidity of the air. High humidity can reduce the efficiency of the heat pump by causing ice to form on the evaporator coils, which can reduce the heat transfer rate and increase the energy consumption of the heat pump.

In addition, the location of the Heat Pump System can also affect its COP. Installing the heat pump in a space with excess heat, such as a furnace room, can increase its efficiency by providing a warmer source of air for the heat pump to extract heat from. On the other hand, installing it in a cold space, such as an unheated garage, can reduce its efficiency by causing the heat pump to work harder to extract heat from the colder air.

The factors affecting COP of Heat Pump are: 1) External Environment 2) COP of compressor 3) COP of components
Factors affecting COP of Heat Pump

2. COP of the compressor:

The compressor is a critical component of the heat pump system, and its efficiency directly impacts the COP. The efficiency of the compressor is affected by various factors, including the compressor’s design, size, and operating conditions.

One of the main factors affecting the compressor’s efficiency is the pressure difference between the suction and discharge sides of the compressor. The pressure difference is determined by the temperature and flow rate of the refrigerant, which are affected by the compressor’s operating conditions. The compressor’s efficiency is highest when the pressure difference is optimized for the given operating conditions.

Compressor’s efficiency is also affected by the compressor’s size. The compressor’s size can affect the compressor’s efficiency by influencing the compressor’s ability to handle the refrigerant flow rate. A larger compressor can handle a higher refrigerant flow rate, which can lead to higher efficiency.

3. COP of heat pump components

This refers to the system matching coefficients of the heat pump components. It is the degree of compatibility and optimization of the various components in the heat pump system, including the compressor, heat exchanger, expansion valve, and refrigerant.


Coefficient of Performance (COP) of a heat pump is a measure of the efficiency of the heat pump, calculated as the ratio of energy delivered from the compressor-driven refrigerant system to the water storage tank divided by the electrical energy input used for heat pump operation.

You must calculate the coefficient of efficiency of a heat pump water heater before you buy. This is because it will help you determine the efficiency of a heat pump. Make sure to take into consideration all the factors mentioned above.

If you want to buy a high COP heat pump for best efficiency, you must visit SolarClue®. SolarClue® is an online marketplace for solar energy products like Solar Street Lights, Solar Panels, Solar Water Heaters and many more. You can avail discounts up to 50% on the products.

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